One of the most active substances in the body is vitamin H. It is necessary for many processes that regulate human health. Otherwise it is called biotin, B7. It is part of the digestive enzymes, needed for the epidermis, nails and hair. Therefore, it is actively used in cosmetology.
What is vitamin H?
Vitamin H (coenzyme R, biotin) is a substance that by its structure belongs to group B. The body produces it in small amounts on its own – with the help of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, and from the outside it comes with food. In its free form, biotin appears as a heat-resistant crystalline substance.
The chemical formula is C10H16N2O3S. Biotin is based on tetrahydromidazole and tetrahydrothiophene rings. In the latter, one hydrogen atom is replaced by valeric acid.
The first information about coenzyme R was obtained in 1901, and in 2016 a scientific experiment was carried out on rats. A group of rodents were given more raw eggs, which contain the protein avidin.
After 3 weeks, they began the process of baldness, skin lesions and signs of muscle atrophy. When the eggs were replaced with boiled ones, the symptoms disappeared. Avidin has been found to bind to biotin and reduce its effectiveness. When eggs are boiled, avidin breaks down, while the vitamin remains intact.
Biotin is destroyed only at temperatures above 232 °C. It dissolves well in liquids and is UV and X-ray resistant. For the stable operation of all organs and systems of this vitamin, a lot is not needed, a small amount is enough, which copes with the necessary biochemical reactions.
Foods rich in vitamin H
There is a long list of foods that contain biotin, but in different concentrations. The first place is occupied by beef and pork liver (98-80 mcg), followed by grain, soy, egg yolks (56-60 mcg). The content of biotin in corn, peas, oatmeal, sorghum is 2-3 times less. At 10 micrograms, the vitamin is found in:
- nutmeg, pistachios;
- dryers and bagels;
- army breadcrumbs, muffin;
A small amount (less than 10 micrograms) of vitamin H is found in cottage cheese, fresh peas, beef heart, sheep’s milk, corn grits. To eliminate the deficiency of biotin, it is enough to include the listed products in the menu to your liking. But you need to focus on the concentration of vitamin H in them, in which products it is the least – in plant foods.
Daily requirement of vitamin H
The need per day for the vitamin is small. It is 10-50 mcg. But you need to take into account age in order to choose the right products containing biotin. The daily requirement increases with:
- long-term use of antibiotics;
- severe burns or damage to a large area of the body;
- constant stress, ongoing depression;
- great physical exertion;
- alcohol abuse;
- diabetes mellitus;
- permanent residence in a climate where the average temperature remains below 30 degrees;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with prolonged diarrhea;
- high content in the menu of fast carbohydrates;
- working with hazardous chemicals.
You can navigate to determine the norm of biotin according to the table
|Age category||Daily requirement (in mcg)|
|Children||1 – 3 years||10|
|7-11 years old||20|
|Boys and girls, adult men and women||11-14 years old||25|
|14-18 years old||50|
|from 18 years old||50|
With proper nutrition, the daily requirement remains normal. There is a rapid assimilation of biotin, but it does not accumulate. Its deficiency can cause seborrheic dermatitis or Leiner’s disease, which are more commonly diagnosed in young children. A decrease in concentration occurs during pregnancy, so more foods containing the vitamin are eaten during this period.
The biological role of vitamin H
Biotin is a vitamin H that is needed for the normal condition of the epidermis, nails and hair. Therefore, it is called the beauty vitamin. If it comes with food, it first enters the kidneys and liver, and from there it is transported throughout the body. He:
- contained in enzymes for carbohydrate-fat metabolism;
- accelerates the growth of children;
- regulates cholesterol levels;
- improves appetite;
- normalizes sugar levels;
- prevents the development of diabetes;
- participates in metabolism;
- necessary to strengthen the immune system;
- strengthens the nervous system;
- restores skin elasticity;
- normalizes the work of digestion, intestines;
- needed for the production of collagen, hemoglobin;
- has a lipotropic effect;
- stops alopecia;
- burns fat;
- helps in transporting carbon dioxide;
- necessary for the thyroid gland;
- participates in the synthesis of nucleotides, through which hereditary information is transmitted;
- enhances the action of vitamin C.
With the help of biotin from carbohydrates, proteins, fats, the body receives energy. It benefits people who have diabetes as it regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Signs of a vitamin H deficiency
Biotin is involved in many important biochemical processes, so its deficiency manifests itself quickly. Since the vitamin is vital for hair, when it is deficient, the curls begin to fade, fall out, dryness and delamination of the tips appear. Signs indicating a deficiency of vitamin H (biotin) can be divided into two groups.
|Acute deficiency||chronic deficiency|
|Tingling, numbness of hands and feet. This may be intermittent.Reduced healthy activity, fatigue, drowsiness. Often this is accompanied by depression, apathy.Peeling of the skin, especially around the nose and mouth. Rashes may appear on the body, and dandruff may appear on the head. Hair becomes brittle and dry.Signs of anemia, muscle pain.Loss of appetite. Sometimes there is swelling of the tongue.Nausea, which can even turn into vomiting.||weakening of the immune system;loss of appetite;causeless anxiety;development of autoimmune diseases;hypotension;constant sleepiness;anemia;deep depression;depletion of the body;atopic dermatitis;hallucinations;hair loss, deterioration of their structure;seborrhea, the appearance of dandruff;rash on the arms, legs, body;arterial hypotension caused by a decrease in the strength of the walls of blood vessels;high concentration of glucose and cholesterol;psoriasis;nervous disorders.|
These signs may indicate not only a lack of biotin, therefore, when they appear, a general examination is required. Such symptoms are characteristic of many diseases if a person takes medication. But the lack of biotin in the body can provoke secondary symptoms that occur against the background of chronic diseases.
Signs of excess vitamin H
Biotin is non-toxic and will not harm health even in high concentrations, even if you include a lot of foods containing the vitamin in your diet. It does not accumulate, so there is no overabundance. Only with the use of biotin tablets (subject to a large dosage), weak signs may appear that often accompany poisoning – nausea, weakness. So the body tries to get rid of excess contents and the symptoms quickly pass.
Factors affecting the content of vitamin H in foods
Vitamin h is heat-resistant, it is destroyed only at a temperature of 200 degrees. Therefore, even the heat treatment of food does not affect its content in food. Its concentration remains in the products and gradually decreases only during their long-term storage.
Why does vitamin H deficiency occur?
Biotin deficiency is rare, it must be independently produced in the body in the right amount. If this process is disturbed, it is more often caused by dysbacteriosis. Also a common cause of its deficiency is long-term use of antibiotics, hypovitaminosis. Biotin deficiency occurs during pregnancy, with enteritis and gastritis, excessive alcohol consumption.
There is another reason – the increased content of avidin in the body, which prevents the absorption of the vitamin. This provokes the development of vitamin deficiency, biotin deficiency. There is a lot of avidin in raw chicken eggs, so it is better to use them after heat treatment. Then the substance decomposes, and biotin is freely absorbed. It will be more useful to eat raw quail eggs.
Vitamin “h” is an important and valuable component, without which the leading biochemical processes in the body are disrupted. Biotin deficiency can have a big impact on the appearance. But its deficiency can be easily filled with the necessary products or vitamin supplements, and cosmetics that contain vitamin H (biotin) will help improve the condition of the skin, nails and hair.
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