Study Questions

  1. List 8 major structural differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and/or draw a picture of each cell type that shows these differences (don’t forget to label the structures).
  2. is it important for us to know that there are differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
  3. Using the correct pronunciation, shout out “Escherichia coli”. Which part of its name refers to the species?  What is the plural of species?
  4. Can you describe and or draw (with labels) several different phenotypic features of bacteria?
  5. Describe one technique that could be used to determine the genotype (or partial genotype) of a microorganism.
  6. Bacteria that are shaped like baseballs are referred to as __________ (or if there is only one, it is called a ________). Bacteria that are shaped like hot dogs are referred to as _____ or __________.
  7. A clinical specimen is sent to the clinical microbiology lab to be tested for the presence of Chlamydia. A few days later the lab report states that the specimen was positive for chlamydial antigens.  What did the lab use to detect the Chlamydia-specific antigens?
  8. Draw a diagram outlining the steps of the Gram staining procedure and how Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells appear microscopically at each step. Use colored pencils, crayons, or highlighters!
  9. Draw a picture of Gram-negative and a Gram-positive cells and label all of the major structural features of each (include everything in the cytoplasm and cell wall). Put a green + next to the structures they both have and a red X next to structures that they do not have in common.
  10. Peptidoglycan is present on the outside of Gram-____________ bacteria.
  11. The outermost layer of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls is called the _______________.
  12. Gram-negative cells do / do not (circle one) have peptidoglycan present in their cell walls.
  13. Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) is unique to Gram-__________bacteria and is called an _______. The unit of LPS that is responsible for its toxic effects is ____________. Why is LPS toxic even after autoclaving?
  14. Where is the periplasmic space in Gram-negative bacteria?
  15. Draw a simple diagram of the structure of peptidoglycan, including the alternating NAG and NAM molecules and the peptide cross links.
  16. What is the function of peptidoglycan?
  17. Add to your diagram in #15, the site(s) at which lysozyme acts to compromise cell wall structure.
  18. Teichoic acid is found in the cell wall of Gram-______________bacteria.
  19. What are some of the functions of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and how does it affect the general “vulnerability” of Gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics and harsh environmental conditions?
  20. Describe the location and general structure of the cytoplasmic membranes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells. How is it similar and how is it different from the cytoplasmic membrane of eukaryotic cells?
  21. Bacterial capsules are composed of ___________________.
  22. The 4 most important things I need to remember about bacterial capsules are:
  23. Compare and contrast flagella and pili with respect to structure, functions, and roles in pathogenesis.
  24. Describe the structure of spores, including the unique calcium chelator found in their outer coat. Under what conditions do spores form and germinate?
  25. The only two medically-important genera that produce spores are __________________ and _____________________. They are both Gram-____________   ____________.
  26. Are the same procedures that inactivate bacteria effective in inactivating spores? If not, what procedures must be used to inactivate spores?