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In these aforementioned guidelines, the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) is obtained through a set of peripheral blood cultures compared with blood cultures obtained from (1) the arterial or venous CVC hub meeting quantitative criteria

(threefold higher count of CFU per milliliter in the CVC hub culture compared with the peripheral venous blood culture); (2) an arterial or venous CVC hub meeting criteria of differential time to positivity (DTTP: the blood culture from the CVC hub turning positive at least 2 hours

before the peripheral blood culture); or (3) the hemodialysis CVC tip growing the same microorganism as the peripheral venous culture. These guidelines defined the peripheral venous culture as one taken from a peripheral vein.

Exit site infections. If drainage is present from the exit site, cultures should be obtained before initiation of antibiotics559. Empiric antibiotic treatment should cover Gram-positive organisms and further modified once culture and sensitivity results are finalized559 . Duration of treatment for exit site infections typically range between 7 to 14 days559 . CVC management of exit site infections: typically does not require removal; however, this depends on the infecting organism and the response to antibiotic therapy.