Table of Contents


18F-FDG = 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose

2D = Two-dimensional

3D = Three-dimensional


AAA = Abdominal aortic aneurysm
AASLD = American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
ABI = Ankle-brachial index
ACA = Anterior cerebral artery
ACAS = Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Trial
ACD = Advance care directives
ACE = Angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACLS = Advanced cardiac life support
ACR = American College of Radiology
ACT = Activated clotting time
ADC = Analog-to-digital converter
ADH = Antidiuretic hormone
ADP = Adenosine diphosphate
AE = Adverse events
AECD = Automatic external cardioverter-defibrillator
AF = Atrial fibrillation
AFB = Acid-fast bacilli
AFP = α-Fetoprotein
AGIH = Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage
AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AK = Above-knee
ALS = Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AMFPI = Active matrix flat-panel imager
AMI = Acute mesenteric ischemia
AML = Angiomyolipoma
Ao = Aorta
AP = Anteroposterior
APD = All-purpose drainage

APF = Arterioportal fistula
APTT = Activated partial thromboplastin time
ARDS = Adult respiratory distress syndrome
ARNP = Advanced registered nurse practitioner
ASA = Acetylsalicylic acid
ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists
ASD = Atrial septal defect
ASPECTS = Alberta Stroke Program early computed tomography scan
AT = Anterior tibial
ATIII = Antithrombin III
ATM = Atmospheres
AV = Arteriovenous
A-V = Atrioventricular
AVF = Arteriovenous fistula
AVG = Arteriovenous graft
AVM = Arteriovenous malformation
AVP = Amplatzer Vascular Plug


BAC = Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
BAE = Bronchial artery embolization
BCLC = Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer
BE = Balloon expandable
β hCG = Beta human chorionic gonadotropin hormone
BGC = Balloon-guiding catheter
bid = Two times per day
BIPAP = Bi-level positive airway pressure
BLS = Basic life support
BMI = Body mass index
BMS = Bare-metal stents
BMT = Bone marrow transplant
BOT = Balloon occlusion tolerance
BP = Blood pressure
BPH = Benign prostatic hyperplasia

BRTO = Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
BTK = Below-the-knee
BUN = Blood urea nitrogen
BW = Bandwidth


CABG = Coronary artery bypass graft
CAD = Coronary artery disease
CAS = Carotid artery stenting
CASH = Chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis
CAVATAS = Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study
CaVenT = Catheter-directed Venous Thrombolysis
CBC = Complete blood count
CBCT = Cone-beam computed tomography
CBF = Cerebral blood flow
CBV = Cerebral blood volume
CC = Cisterna chyli
CCA = Common carotid artery
CCD = Charge-coupled device
CCS = Canadian Cardiovascular Society
CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDT = Catheter-directed thrombolysis
CEA = Carcinoembryonic antigen; carotid endarterectomy
CFA = Common femoral artery
CFV = Common femoral vein
CHA = Common hepatic artery
CHF = Congestive heart failure
CIA = Common iliac artery
CIN = Contrast-induced nephropathy
CIWA = Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment
CKD = Chronic kidney disease
CLABSI = Central line-associated bloodstream infection
CLI = Critical limb ischemia
CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

CNS = Central nervous system
COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COX = Cyclooxygenase
CP = Cerebral protection
CPAP = Continuous positive airway pressure
CPAS = Congenital pulmonary artery stenosis
CPOE = Computerized physician order entry
CPR = Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPRF = Curved planar reformats
CPT = Current Procedural Terminology
Cr = Creatinine (serum)
CQI = Continuous quality improvement
CR-BSI = Catheter-related bloodstream infections
CRC = Colorectal cancer
CREST = Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial
CRP = C-reactive protein
CSF = Cerebrospinal fluid
CsI = Cesium iodide
CT = Computed tomography
CTA = Computed tomographic angiography
cTACE = Conventional transarterial chemoembolization
CTO = Chronic total occlusion
CTP = CT perfusion
CTV = Computed tomography venography
CV = Central venous
CVA = Cerebral vascular accident
CVC = Central venous catheter
CVD = Chronic venous disease
CXR = Chest radiograph; chest xray



D5½NS = 5% dextrose, half-normal saline solution

D5W = 5% Dextrose solution
DAP = Dose–area product
DAVF = Dural arteriovenous fistula
DCI = Delayed cerebral ischemia
DEB = Drug-eluting bead; drug-eluting balloon
DER = Dual energy radiography
DES = Drug-eluting stent
DH = Degree of hypertrophy
DIC = Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
DICOM = Digital imaging and communication in medicine
DIPS = Direct intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
DLGJ = Double lumen gastrojejunostomy
DIR = Dose Index Registry; double inversion recovery
DM = Diabetes mellitus
DMSO = Dimethyl sulfoxide
DNI = Do not intubate
DNR = Do not resuscitate
DOQI = Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
DQE = Detective quantum efficiency
DSA = Digital subtraction angiography
DTPA = Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid
DUS = Doppler ultrasound; duplex ultrasound
DVT = Deep vein thrombosis


E&M = Evaluation and Management
EASL = European Association for the Study of the Liver
ECG = Electrocardiogram
ECOG = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
ECST = European Carotid Surgery Trial
ED = Emergency department
EDV = End-diastolic velocity

EGFR = Epidermal growth factor receptor
eGFR = Estimated GFR
EIA = External iliac artery
ENT = Ear, nose, and throat
EPD = Embolic protection device
ERCP = Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ERF = Esophagorespiratory fistula
ESBL = Extended-spectrum betalactamase
ESCAPE = Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion with Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times
ESI = Epidural steroid injection
ESWL = Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
EUS = Endoscopic ultrasound
EVA-3S = Endarterectomy versus Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis
EVAR = Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair
EVLT = Endovenous laser treatment
EVOH = Ethylene vinyl alcohol
EXTEND-IA = Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits–Intra-arterial


FB = Foreign body
FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FDG-PET = Positron emission tomography
FFP = Fresh frozen plasma
FHVP = Free hepatic venous pressure
FLR = Future liver remnant
FNA = Fine needle aspiration
FNH = Focal nodular hyperplasia
FOV = Field-of-view


GA = General anesthesia
GABA = γ-Aminobutyric acid

Gd = Gadolinium
GDA = Gastroduodenal artery
GDC = Gugliemi detachable coil
Gd-MRA = Gadolinium enhanced MRA
GFR = Glomerular filtration rate
GI = Gastrointestinal
GJ = Gastrojejunostomy
GP = Glycoprotein
GSV = Greater saphenous vein
GU = Genitourinary
GW = Guidewire


HA = Hepatic artery
HAP = Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm
HAS = Hepatic artery stenosis
HASTE = Half-Fourier acquisitions with single-shot turbo-spin echo
HAT = Hepatic artery thrombosis
HCC = Hepatocellular carcinoma
HCFMEA = Health Care Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
hCG = Human chorionic gonadotropin
HCl = Hydrochloride
Hct = Hematocrit
HD = Hemodialysis
Hgb = Hemoglobin
HHT = Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
HIFU = High-intensity focused ultrasound
HIT = Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
HITT = Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome
HMPAO = Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime
HMW = High-molecular-weight
HOCA = High-osmolality contrast agents
HPS = Hepatopulmonary syndrome
HR = Hazard ratio; heart rate

HSG = Hysterosalpingogram
HT = High thigh
HTN = Hypertension
HU = Hounsfield unit
HV = Hepatic venous
HVPG = Hepatic venous pressure gradient


IA = Intra-arterial
IC = Intracranial
ICA = Internal carotid artery
ICBT = Intercostobronchial trunk
ICD-10 = International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision
ICH = Intracerebral hemorrhage
ICP = Intracranial pressure
ICSS = International Carotid Stenting Study
ICU = Intensive care unit
ID = Internal diameter
IFU = Instructions for use
IHI = Institute for Healthcare Improvement
IHSS = Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
II = Image intensifier
IIA = Internal iliac artery
IIEF = International Index of Erectile Function
IJ = Internal jugular
IJV = Internal jugular vein
IM = Intramuscular
IMA = Inferior mesenteric artery; internal mammary artery
IMS III = Interventional Management of Stroke III
IMV = Inferior mesenteric vein
INR = International normalized ratio
IO = Interventional oncology
IOM = Institute of Medicine
IPSS = International Prostate Symptom ScoreIQR Interquartile range
IR = Interventional radiology; interventional radiologist
IRE = Irreversible electroporation
ISAT = International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial
ISV = Internal spermatic vein
ITT = Intention to treat
IV = Intravenous; intravenously
IVA = Inferior vesical artery
IVC = Inferior vena cava
IVUS = Intravascular ultrasound


J-tube = Jejunostomy



KAP = Kerma–area product
KGR = Kinetic growth rate
KP = Kyphoplasty
K-RAS = Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog
KTS = Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome
kVp = Kilovolt peak
KVO = Keep vein open


LA = Left atrial; left atrium
LAD = Left anterior descending
LAO = Left anterior oblique
LCD = Liquid crystal display
LDCT = Low-dose CT
LDH = Lactate dehydrogenase
LDL = Low-density lipoprotein
LFT = Liver function test
LGIB = Lower GI bleeding
LM = Lymphatic malformations
LMA = Laryngeal mask airway
LMWH = Low-molecular-weight heparin
LOCA = Low-osmolality contrast agents
LOCM = Low osmolar contrast medium

LSCA = Left subclavian artery
LSF = Lung shunt fraction
LSN = Last seen normal
LUTS = Lower urinary tract symptoms
LV = Left ventricle; left ventricular
LVEDP = Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
LVEDV = Left ventricular end-diastolic volume
LVO = Large vessel occlusion


MAA = Macroaggregated albumin
MAC = Monitored anesthesia care
MAO = Monoamine oxidase
MAP = Mean arterial pressure
MBB = Medial branch block
MC = Manual compression
MCA = Middle cerebral artery
mCRC = Metastatic colon cancer
mCTA = Multiphase CTA
MD = Medical doctor
MI = Myocardial infarction
MIP = Maximum intensity projection
MODS = Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
MPA = Multipurpose shape
MPR = Multiplanar reformations
MR = Magnetic resonance
MRA = Magnetic resonance angiography
MR CLEAN = Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands
MRCP = Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
MRDSA = Magnetic resonance digital subtraction angiography
mRECIST = Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
MR RESCUE = Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy

MRI = Magnetic resonance imaging
MRV= Magnetic resonance venogram; magnetic resonance venography
mTICI = Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction
MTT = Mean transit time
MWA Microwave ablation


nAC = n-Acetyl cysteine
NaHCO3 = Sodium bicarbonate
NASCET = North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial
nBCA = n-Butyl cyanoacrylate
NCCT = Noncontrast computed tomography
NG = Nasogastric
NG-tube = Nasogastric tube
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIHSS = National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale
NINDS = National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NKF-KDOQI = Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative
NLST = National Lung Screening Trial
NOHAH = Nonocclusive hepatic artery hypoperfusion syndrome
NOMI = Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia
NPH = Neutral protamine Hagedorn
NPO = Nil per os
NS = Normal saline
NSAID = Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSCLC = Non–small cell lung cancer
NSF = Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
NTG = Nitroglycerin
NYHA = New York Heart Association


OD = Outer diameter
OP = Outpatient
OPSI = Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection
OR = Operating room

OSA = Obstructive sleep apnea


PA = Physician’s assistant; pulmonary artery
PACS = Picture archiving and communication system
PAD = Peripheral arterial disease; pulmonary artery diastolic
PAE = Prostate artery embolization
PAP = Pulmonary arterial pressure
PARTO = Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration
PAVM = Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation
PBD = Percutaneous biliary drainage
PCA = Patient-controlled analgesia; posterior cerebral artery
PCC = Prothrombin complex concentrate
PCDT = Pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis
PCI = Percutaneous coronary intervention
PC-MRA = Phase contrast-MRA
PCN = Percutaneous nephrostomy
PCORI = Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
PCSA = Patient-controlled sedation
PCW = Pulmonary capillary wedge
PCWP = Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PD = Peritoneal dialysis
PDCA = Plan–Do–Check–Act
PE = Peroneal; pulmonary embolism/embolus
PEEP = Positive end-expiratory pressure
PEG = Polyethylene glycol
PEM = Polidocanol endovenous microfoam
PERP = Patient entrance reference point
PET = Positron emission tomography
PFO = Patent foramen ovale
PGA = Polyglycolic acid
PGJ = Percutaneous gastrojejunostomy
PIAA = Physicians Insurers Association of America
PICC = Peripherally inserted central catheter

PIOPED = Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis
PJ = Percutaneous jejunostomy
PMMA = Polymethylmethacrylate
PMT = Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy
PO = By mouth
PPH = Postpartum hemorrhage
P-PS = Power-pulse spray
pr = Per rectum
PRBC = Packed red blood cell
PRG = Percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy
PSA = Pseudoaneurysm
PSA = Prostate specific antigen
PSD = Peak skin dose
PSV = Peak systolic velocity
PT = Prothrombin time; posterior tibial
PTA = Percutaneous transluminal (balloon) angioplasty
PTC = Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PTD = Percutaneous thrombolytic device
PTFE = Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTRA = Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty
PTS = Postthrombotic syndrome
PTT = Partial thromboplastin time
PTX = Pneumothorax
PV = Percutaneous vertebroplasty; portal vein/venous
PVA = Polyvinyl alcohol
PVC = Premature ventricular contraction
PVE = Portal vein embolization
PVR = Pulmonary vascular resistance; pulse volume recording
PVS = Portal vein stenosis
PVT = Portal vein thrombosis


QA = Quality assurance
qEASL = Quantitative European Association for the Study of the Liver

qid = Four times per day
QISS = Quiescent interval single shot
QOL = Quality of life


RA = Right atrium
RAO = Right anterior oblique
RAPTURE = Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Tumors Response Evaluation
RAS = Renal artery stenosis
RBBB = Right bundle branch block
RBC = Red blood cell
RCA = Root cause analysis
RCC = Renal cell carcinoma
RCT = Randomized controlled trial
RF = Radiofrequency
RFA = Radiofrequency ablation
RHV = Right hepatic vein
RI = Renal insufficiency; resistive index
RIJ = Right internal jugular
RIM = Rösch inferior mesenteric
RN = Registered nurse
ROBOT = Rotational bidirectional thrombectomy
ROI = Region of interest
ROSE = Rapid on site evaluation
RPO = Right posterior oblique
RR = Respiratory rate
RT = Respiratory therapist
rt-PA = Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
RV = Right ventricle
RVEDP = Right ventricular end diastolic pressure
RVR = Renal vein renin


SAH = Subarachnoid hemorrhage
SAP = Superabsorbent polymerSBP Systolic blood pressure
SBRT = Stereotactic body radiotherapy
SC = Subcutaneous; subclavian
SEER = Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
SEMS = Self-expanding metallic stents
SEV = Superficial epigastric vein
SFA = Superficial femoral artery
sFLR = Standardized future liver remnant
SI = Sacroiliac
SICH = Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage
SIN = Salpingitis isthmica nodosa
SIR = Society of Interventional Radiology
SIRS = Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SK = Streptokinase
SMA = Superior mesenteric artery
SMV = Superior mesenteric vein
SNMMI S= ociety of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
SNR = Signal-to-noise ratio
SNRB = Selective nerve root block
SPACE = Stent-supported Percutaneous Angioplasty of the Carotid Artery
versus Endarterectomy
SPECT = Single-photon emission computed tomography
SPGR = Spoiled gradient echo
SPN = Solitary pulmonary nodules
SQ = Subcutaneous
SSFP = Steady state free precession
SSFSE = Single-shot fast spin echo
SSI = Surgical site infection
SSV = Short saphenous vein
STIR = Short T1 inversion recovery
STS = Sodium tetradecyl sulfate
SUV = Standardized uptake value

SVC = Superior vena cava
SVR = Systemic vascular resistance
SVS = Society of Vascular Surgery
SVT = Superfical venous thrombosis
SWIFT PRIME = Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment


TA = Tumescent anesthesia
TAA = Thoracic aortic aneurysm
TACE = Transarterial chemoembolization
TAE = Transarterial embolization
TCD = Transcranial Doppler
TcPO2 = Transcutaneous oxygen pressure
TD = Thoracic duct
TDE = Thoracic duct embolization
TEE = Transesophageal echo
TELV = Total estimated liver volume
TEVAR = Thoracic endovascular aortic repair
TFT = Thin-film transistor
TIA = Transient ischemic attack
TIPS = Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
TLR = Target lesion revascularization
TLV = Total liver volume
TNB = Transthoracic needle biopsy
TNK = Tenecteplase
TNM = Tumor, node, metastasis
TOF = Time-of-flight
TOPAS = Thrombolysis or Peripheral Arterial Surgery
TPN = Total parenteral nutrition
TR = Repetition time
TRICKS = Time Resolved Imaging of Contrast Kinetics
TTP = Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; time to peak
TTS = Time to start

TURP = Transurethral resection of prostate


UAE = Uterine artery embolization
UFE = Uterine fibroid embolization
UK = Urokinase
UR = Urinary retention
US = Ultrasound
UTI = Urinary tract infection


VAA = Visceral arterial aneurysms
VB = Vertebral body
VCD = Vascular closure device
VEGF = Vascular endothelial growth factor
VENC = Velocity encoding value
VIP = V-Twist Integrated Platform
VIPR = Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction
VM = Venous malformations
V/Q = Ventilation/perfusion
VS = Vital signs
VT = Ventricular tachycardia
VTE = Venous thromboembolism


WBC = White blood cell
WHO = World Health Organization
WHOL = Worst headache of life
WHVP = Wedged hepatic venous pressure