1. Are bacteria generally more resistant to antibiotics when they grow in suspension or in a biofilm? Why?
  2. Draw and label a typical bacterial growth curve. Describe what is happening during each of the major phases.  During which phase will antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis be most effective?
  3. Describe the difference in the results of a direct cell count vs. a viable cell count of bacteria in a specimen.
  4. Why is it important to know the specific growth requirements of medically-important bacteria? Can you describe a scenario in which not knowing the specific growth requirements of a bacterium might affect the care of a patient?
  5. Explain the oxygen requirements of obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, and facultative anaerobes.
  6. List the 2 major toxic molecules produced during aerobic growth and the 2 enzymes produced by some bacteria that inactivate them. Why are they considered to be toxic?  What are the breakdown products of these 2 enzymatically-mediated reactions?
  7. Why do obligate anaerobes usually die in the presence of oxygen?
  8. What is fermentation? Which bacteria (classified according to their oxygen requirements) carry out fermentation and under what conditions?
  9. Under what conditions do facultative anaerobic bacteria produce more ATP? Why?
  10. Draw your own diagram showing the 3 major phases of peptidoglycan synthesis. Keep it simple, but label the major “players” and steps in this process.
  11. Add to your diagram in # 10, the steps at which the following antibiotics interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis: fosfomycin and cycloserine, vancomycin, β-lactams, bacitracin.
  12. Describe the general features (overall steps) that the synthesis of peptidoglycan, teichoic acid and LPS have in common.